Categories

 > History > Ancient Civilizations

14,429 results were found

Sort by:

A Short Introduction to Theodosius the Great
by John Lord

Language

English

Pages

Publication Date

April 23, 2017

Product Description
Customer Reviews
The last of those Roman emperors whom we call great was Theodosius. After him there is no great historic name, unless it be Justinian, who reigned when Rome had fallen. With Theodosius is associated the life-and-death struggle of Rome with the Gothic barbarians, and the final collapse of Paganism as a tolerated religion. Paganism in its essence, its spirit, was not extinguished; it entered into new forms, even into the Church itself; and it still exists in Christian countries. When Bismarck was asked why he did not throw down his burdens, he is reported to have said: “Because no man can take my place. I should like to retire to my estates and raise cabbages; but I have work to do against Paganism: I live among Pagans.” Neither Theodosius nor Bismarck was what we should call a saint. Both have been stained by acts which it is hard to distinguish from crimes; but both have given evidence of hatred of certain evils which undermine society. Theodosius, especially, made war and fought nobly against the two things which most imperilled the Empire,—the barbarians who had begun their ravages, and the Paganism which existed both in and outside the Church. For which reasons he has been praised by most historians, in spite of great crimes and some vices. The worldly Gibbon admires him for the noble stand he took against external dangers, and the Fathers of the Church almost adored him for his zealous efforts in behalf of orthodoxy. An eminent scholar of the advanced school has seen nothing in him to admire, and much to blame. But he was undoubtedly a very great man, and rendered important services to his age and to civilization, although he could not arrest the fatal disease which even then had destroyed the vitality of the Empire. It was already doomed when he ascended the throne. No mortal genius, no imperial power, could have saved the crumbling Empire...
Des césars (French Edition)
by Aurelius Victor

Language

French

Pages

Publication Date

April 21, 2017

Product Description
Customer Reviews
Extrait : <br />Vers l’an sept cent vingt-deux de la fondation de la ville, on reprit, à Rome, l’usage d’obéir entièrement à <br />un seul chef. Octavien, fils d’Octavius, et adopté par César, son grand-oncle ; Octavien, qu’un sénatus-consulte <br />surnomma bientôt Auguste, cause de sa clémence après la victoire dans une guerre civile, gagna d’abord les <br />soldats par ses largesses, le peuple par l’espoir des distributions de vivres, et soumit ensuite sans peine les <br />autres citoyens. Il exerça ainsi le pouvoir pendant près de quarante-quatre ans, et mourut de maladie à Nole, après <br />avoir ajouté à l’empire la Rhétie et l’Illyrie, et dompté la fougue indomptable des nations étrangères, à l’exception <br />de la Germanie. Cependant, vainqueur d’Antoine, il fut le troisième, depuis Numa, qui ait fermé le temple de Janus, <br />coutume observée chez les Romains lorsque les guerres laissaient quelque repos à la république. Auguste était populaire <br />et enjoué, mais trop passionné pour l’excès des plaisirs, pour les jeux et pour l’intempérance, qui te provoquait au <br />sommeil...
La Théogonie Edition Francaise (French Edition)
by Hesiode

Language

French

Pages

Publication Date

April 22, 2017

Product Description
Customer Reviews
Extrait : <br />Commençons notre chant par les Muses, habitantes du haut et divin Hélicon, qui, près d’une noire fontaine, devant <br />l’autel du puissant fils de Cronos, mènent des danses légères ; qui, après avoir baigné leur beau corps dans les <br />eaux du Permesse, de l’Hippocrène, du divin Olmeios, couronnent de chœurs gracieux, ravissants, les sommets de la <br />montagne sacrée et les foulent sous leurs pieds agiles. C’est de là qu’elles descendent, lorsque, la nuit, dans un <br />nuage, elles s’en vont parcourir la terre, faisant retentir au loin leur voix harmonieuse. Elles chantent Zeus qui <br />s’arme de l’égide, Héra qui règne dans Argos et marche sur une chaussure dorée, la fille du roi des dieux, Athéné <br />aux yeux d’azur, Apollon et sa sœur la chasseresse Arthémis, Poséidon, ce dieu dont les eaux embrassent la terre, <br />dont le sceptre l’ébranlé, la vénérable Thémis, Aphrodite aux doux regards, Hébé à la couronne d’or, la belle Dioné, <br />l’Aurore, le grand Hélios, la brillante Séléné, et Latone, et Japet, et Cronos aux rusés conseils, la Terre, le vaste <br />Océan, la Nuit obscure, la race des autres dieux immortels.
Chronology Papers: Chronology of the Bible and the World
by Walter R. Dolen

Language

English

Pages

Publication Date

April 22, 2017

Product Description
Customer Reviews
This is the second edition, 2016 printing with error corrections. The Chronology Papers is a book that synchronizes secular historical documents with the longest existing chronology (4000 years) included in the Hebrew Bible. The book examines secular chronology and its foundations: eponym lists, king lists, eclipses, astronomical tablets, etc. The various Babylonian, Egyptian, Assyrian, Ptolemy’s king list and Sumerian king lists of the Middle East are investigated. Edwin R. Thiele’s Biblical chronology is also studied. World calendars are examined and how they weigh on ascertaining a factual chronology. The idea of “absolute dates” through the sighting of eclipses of the sun and moon is analyzed for its ability to identify dates in history. Astronomical chaos is looked into and its effect on figuring dates. The chronology of Jesus Christ is also rendered with the best information available. There is an expanded table of contents and Index included. Hundreds of citing throughout. Book is based on over 40 years of study.
A Short Introduction to Julius Caesar
by John Lord

Language

English

Pages

28

Publication Date

April 20, 2017

Product Description
Customer Reviews
The most august name in the history of the old Roman world, and perhaps of all antiquity, is that of Julius Caesar; and a new interest has of late been created in this extraordinary man by the brilliant sketch of his life and character by Mr. Froude, who has whitewashed him, as is the fashion with hero-worshippers, like Carlyle in his history of Frederick II. But it is not an easy thing to reverse the verdict of the civilized world for two thousand years, although a man of genius can say many interesting things and offer valuable suggestions.<br />In his Life of Caesar Mr. Froude seems to vindicate Imperialism, not merely as a great necessity in the corrupt times which succeeded the civil wars of Marius and Sulla, but as a good thing in itself. It seems to me that while there was a general tendency to Imperialism in the Roman world for one or two hundred years before Christ, the whole tendency of modern governments is against it, and has been since the second English Revolution. It still exists in Russia and Turkey, possibly in Germany and Austria; yet constitutional forms of government seem to be gradually taking its place. What a change in England, France, Italy, and Spain during the last hundred years!—what a breaking up of the old absolutism of the Bourbons! Even the imperialism of Napoleon is held in detestation by a large class of the French nation...
Ur: História e Legado da Antiga Capital Suméria (Portuguese Edi...
by Charles River Editors

Language

Portuguese

Pages

Publication Date

April 23, 2017

Product Description
Customer Reviews
Quando arqueólogos americanos descobriram uma coleção de tabuletas cuneiformes no Iraque, ao final do século XIX, eles se depararam com uma linguagem e um povo que, naquela época, era pouco conhecido até mesmo pelos estudiosos mais instruídos da antiga Mesopotâmia: os sumérios. As explorações e conquistas de outros povos mesopotâmicos, como os assírios e babilônios, já eram conhecidas por um grande segmento da população através do Antigo Testamento, e o campo nascente de estudos do Oriente Próximo havia revelado o enigma da língua acadiana, que era amplamente utilizada na região em tempos antigos; no entanto, a descoberta das tabuletas sumérias trouxe à luz a existência da cultura suméria, a mais antiga de todas as culturas da Mesopotâmia.<br /><br />Muito antes de Alexandria ser uma cidade, e antes mesmo de Mênfis e Babilônia alcançarem grandeza, a antiga cidade mesopotâmica de Ur era primordial entre as cidades do Oriente Próximo. Atualmente, a grandeza e influência cultural de Ur têm sido esquecidas pela maioria das pessoas, parcialmente porque seus monumentos não resistiram ao tempo da forma como os monumentos de outras culturas antigas o fizeram. Por exemplo, os monumentos do Egito foram feitos de pedra, ao passo em que os de Ur e da maioria das cidades da Mesopotâmia foram feitos de tijolos de barro; como será discutido neste artigo, tijolo de barro pode ser um material mais fácil de trabalhar do que pedra – porém, o mesmo também decai mais rapidamente. O mesmo vale, de certa forma, para os documentos escritos que foram produzidos em Ur. O povo da Mesopotâmia, do qual Ur fazia parte, empregava o sistema cuneiforme de escrita; uma vez que a mesma era quase sempre feita em tabuletas de argila, acadêmicos modernos têm de lidar com o lamentável problema de que muitas das tabuletas foram quebradas e tornaram-se ilegíveis ao decorrer dos séculos. Apesar da natureza efêmera de seus monumentos e, em certa medida, de seus textos escritos, Ur provou ser uma inspiração para os sumérios que construíram a cidade e também para culturas e dinastias posteriores que habitaram a Mesopotâmia.<br /><br /> Um exame de fontes primárias relacionadas a Ur, bem como escavações arqueológicas feitas na cidade antiga, revelam que a mesma fora um baluarte cultural por milhares de anos. Ur surgiu como uma cidade de importância secundária, mas rapidamente cresceu para tornar-se a cidade mais importante da Suméria. Em seu auge, Ur foi o centro da grande dinastia que controlava diretamente a maior parte da Mesopotâmia, através de um exército e burocracia bem administrados – além disso, as áreas que não estavam sob seu controle direto foram influenciadas por diplomatas e ideias religiosas de Ur. O presente estudo também revelará que Ur era uma cidade verdadeiramente resistente, pois sobrevivera à queda dos sumérios, à destruição completa nas mãos dos elamitas, e às ocupações posteriores por diversos outros povos, que, mais recentemente, incluíram Saddam Hussein. Ur inspirou a imaginação dos povos antigos, mas também extasiou as mentes dos povos modernos, que trabalharam por mais de 150 anos para desvendar os mistérios da cidade. Verdadeiramente, quando se trata de importantes cidades antigas, Ur deveria ser contada entre as maiores.<br /><br />Ur: História e Legado da Antiga Capital Suméria traça a história e o legado de uma das cidades mais influentes da Antiguidade. Junto a imagens de pessoas, lugares e eventos importantes, você aprenderá sobre a história de Ur como nunca antes, em nenhum outro tempo.
Eridu: Die Geschichte und das Vermächtnis der ältesten Stadt im...
by Charles River Editors

Language

German

Pages

Publication Date

April 23, 2017

Product Description
Customer Reviews
“Nachdem die Königsherrschaft vom Himmel kam, war die Königsherrschaft in Eridu.” – Auszug aus dem ersten Absatz der sumerischen Königsliste<br /><br />Man kann sehen, wie sich in der Wüstenlandschaft Südiraks die Überreste eines großen Walls abzeichnen, die eine ungefähre Größe von 1750 x 1750 Fuß aufweisen und von etlichen kleineren Wällen umgeben sind. Heute bekannt als Tell Abu Shahrain oder in der Antike als Eridu, bietet diese Stätte einige der besten Beispiele für die Obed Kultur und sie war eine der ersten städtischen Zentren der Zivilisation <br /><br />im Süden Mesopotamiens, wenn nicht sogar das erste. <br /><br />Viele berühmte Geschichten entstammen den mythischen Landschaften im tiefen Süden Irans. In der Literatur des antiken Sumer wurde Eridu als die Urstadt betrachtet, das erste Ballungszentrum, welches vermutlich schon lange vor der großen Sintflut existierte, welche die menschliche Kultur laut Buch Genesis und anderen früheren Überlieferungen auslöschte. Es war so, dass sich die westlichen Entdecker erstmals im 19. Jahrhundert auf die Suche nach den Ursprüngen der Länder machten, welche die Bibel als Ursprung der Menschlichen Rasse bezeichnete. Dabei entdeckten sie, dass Eridu ein realer Ort war. Die erstaunliche Stätte liegt etwa 8 Meilen südwestlich der sumerischen Stadt Ur und die westlichen Archäologen waren verwundert, wie eine so große Stadt wie diese in einer so großen und wasserlosen Wüste existieren konnte, als sie sie Mitte des 19. Jahrhunderts erstmals ausgruben. Doch Eridu liegt am Rande der großen Alluvial Ebene Sumers, einem verwilderten und wunderschönen Sumpfland, in dem der Tigris und der Euphrat aufeinandertreffen. Dies war der biblische „Garten Eden“, eine alte Landschaft, die für ihre Fruchtbarkeit bekannt war.<br /><br />Für viele Westländer war die Geschichte Iraks vor 1991 nichtssagend, doch ironischerweise half sie, die Wichtigkeit und den Einfluss der Region auf die westliche Zivilisation hervorzuheben, als die Region im Krieg versank. Es war hier in der wilden Landschaft im Südirak, ehemals Sumer, wo die ersten Gesetze, Wissenschaften und Städte entstanden. Eridu ist für die Erforschung der frühesten Stadien der Zivilisation der Geschichte ein Ort von außergewöhnlicher Bedeutung. Es ist eines der besten Beispiele für das kulturelle Fortbestehen in Mesopotamien von den frühesten prähistorischen Stadien, in denen sich Siedlungen entwickelten bis hin zu den späteren Zeitaltern. Eridu hatte nicht etwa den besonderen Status als Residenz des Herrschergeschlechts, jedoch für seinen religiösen Stellenwert. Es wurde eine Reihe von Tempeln errichtet, die dem Schutzgott der Stadt namens Enki gewidmet wurden. Jeder einzelne wurde auf den Ruinen des Vorgängerbaus errichtet und repräsentiert die architektonischen, religiösen und sozialen Veränderungen, die sich in Laufe ihrer Geschichte in der Stätte ereignet haben.<br /><br />Eridu: Die Geschichte und das Vermächtnis der ältesten Stadt im antiken Mesopotamien beleuchtet die turbulente Geschichte einer der wichtigsten Städte der Antike. Zusammen mit Bildern, die wichtige Personen, Orte und Ereignisse darstellen, werden Sie Dinge erfahren, wie niemals zuvor.
La Théogonie (French Edition)
by Hersiode

Language

French

Pages

Publication Date

April 23, 2017

Product Description
Customer Reviews
Extrait : <br />Commençons notre chant par les Muses, habitantes du haut et divin Hélicon, qui, près d’une noire fontaine, devant <br />l’autel du puissant fils de Cronos, mènent des danses légères ; qui, après avoir baigné leur beau corps dans les <br />eaux du Permesse, de l’Hippocrène, du divin Olmeios, couronnent de chœurs gracieux, ravissants, les sommets de la <br />montagne sacrée et les foulent sous leurs pieds agiles. C’est de là qu’elles descendent, lorsque, la nuit, dans un <br />nuage, elles s’en vont parcourir la terre, faisant retentir au loin leur voix harmonieuse. Elles chantent Zeus qui <br />s’arme de l’égide, Héra qui règne dans Argos et marche sur une chaussure dorée, la fille du roi des dieux, Athéné <br />aux yeux d’azur, Apollon et sa sœur la chasseresse Arthémis, Poséidon, ce dieu dont les eaux embrassent la terre, <br />dont le sceptre l’ébranlé, la vénérable Thémis, Aphrodite aux doux regards, Hébé à la couronne d’or, la belle Dioné, <br />l’Aurore, le grand Hélios, la brillante Séléné, et Latone, et Japet, et Cronos aux rusés conseils, la Terre, le vaste <br />Océan, la Nuit obscure, la race des autres dieux immortels.<br />
The Deeds of the Divine Augustus : Res Gestae Divi Augusti
by Augustus

Language

English

Pages

Publication Date

April 24, 2017

Product Description
Customer Reviews
Res Gestae Divi Augusti (Eng. The Deeds of the Divine Augustus) is the funerary inscription of the first Roman emperor, Augustus, giving a first-person record of his life and accomplishments. The Res Gestae is especially significant because it gives an insight into the image Augustus portrayed to the Roman people. Various inscriptions of the Res Gestae have been found scattered across the former Roman Empire. The inscription itself is a monument to the establishment of the Julio-Claudian dynasty that was to follow Augustus.<br /><br />The text consists of a short introduction, 35 body paragraphs, and a posthumous addendum. These paragraphs are conventionally grouped in four sections, political career, public benefactions, military accomplishments and a political statement.<br /><br />The first section (paragraphs 2–14) is concerned with Augustus' political career; it records the offices and political honours that he held. Augustus also lists numerous offices he refused to take and privileges he refused to be awarded. The second section (paragraphs 15–24) lists Augustus' donations of money, land and grain to the citizens of Italy and his soldiers, as well as the public works and gladiatorial spectacles that he commissioned. The text is careful to point out that all this was paid for out of Augustus' own funds. The third section (paragraphs 25–33) describes his military deeds and how he established alliances with other nations during his reign. Finally the fourth section (paragraphs 34–35) consists of a statement of the Romans' approval for the reign and deeds of Augustus. The appendix is written in the third person, and likely not by Augustus himself. It summarizes the entire text, and lists various buildings he renovated or constructed; it states that Augustus spent 600 million silver denarii (i.e. 600,000 gold denarii) from his own funds during his reign on public projects. Ancient currencies cannot be reliably converted into modern equivalents, but it is clearly more than anyone else in the Empire could afford. Augustus consolidated his hold on power by reversing the prior tax policy beginning with funding the aerarium militare with 170 million sesterces of his own money.
Tiro, Biblos y Sidón: La historia de los tres más importantes c...
by Charles River Editors

Language

Spanish

Pages

Publication Date

April 23, 2017

Product Description
Customer Reviews
A lo largo del occidente del Mediterráneo se han descubierto gran número de objetos cuya apariencia o materiales son extraños a las culturas locales, ya sea un amuleto egipcio en Grecia, un vaso griego en África, o miles de extraños amuletos en Gibraltar. Los restos son evidencia de que una gran cantidad de productos fueron alguna vez movidos de un lugar a otro, transportados sistemáticamente y comerciados a lo largo del Mediterráneo por la antigua red comercial de los fenicios. Comenzando en el siglo 13 A.C., y continuando por más de un milenio, esta civilización dominó el más importante cuerpo de agua conocido por los antiguos. Con sus barcos formidables y sus habilidades comerciales, se hicieron famosos comerciando por entre Egipto, Grecia, Roma, Cartago, Cerdeña, España y finalmente hasta el océano Atlántico, estableciéndose como los señores indiscutibles del mar.<br /><br />Los fenicios fueron bien conocidos a lo largo de muchas civilizaciones en todo el mundo antiguo y su influencia se puede apreciar en muchos lugares del occidente hoy en día porque a ellos se les atribuye la invención del precursor del alfabeto griego, del que se derivó directamente el alfabeto latino. Sin embargo, los fenicios dejaron pocos textos escritos, de manera que los historiadores modernos se han visto forzados a reconstruir su pasado por medio de una variedad de antiguas fuentes egipcias, asirias, babilonias, griegas y romanas. No es ni siquiera claro cómo se llamaron a sí mismos los fenicios, porque el nombre “fenicio” se deriva de la palabra griega “phoinix”, que se refiere posiblemente a los tintes que ellos producían y comerciaban (Markoe 2000, 10). El misterio de los antiguos fenicios se complica más por el hecho de que los arqueólogos han sido capaces de excavar solo pequeñas secciones de las tres más importantes ciudades fenicias: Biblos, Sidón y Tiro. <br /><br />Biblos, conocida hoy en día como Jebail, ha sido conocida a través del tiempo con muchos otros nombres: los fenicios la llamaron Gebal; para los egipcios fue Kepen o Kupna; los asirios y los acadios se referían a ella como Gubla (este es el nombre que aparece en el Antiguo Testamento); los árabes la llamaron Jbeil, y eventualmente los cruzados europeos le dieron el nombre de Gibelet. Esta larga etimología refleja la singular importancia del legado de la ciudad, porque Biblos es una de las más antiguas ciudades habitadas sin interrupción que ha habido en el mundo. La ciudad fue mencionada con frecuencia en los grandes archivos de la antigüedad, pero sus orígenes descansan en lo más profundo de la prehistoria. Su localización estratégica, con abundancia de madera para la construcción de barcos procedente de las montañas cercanas, hizo que muchos estados poderosos quisieran controlar el territorio. Con el tiempo, Biblos y el área circundante fueron ocupados por los amorreos, los cananeos, los fenicios, los asirios, los persas, los macedonios, los romanos, los árabes, los cruzados, los mamelucos y los otomanos.<br /><br />Como muchas otras ciudades del Levante, Sidón ha sido habitada sin interrupción por siglos, y a pesar de las transformaciones traídas por múltiples civilizaciones que sucedieron a los fenicios, la ciudad mantuvo completamente una identidad antigua y un carácter original hasta el período moderno. De todas maneras, mucha de su antigua historia sigue envuelta en el misterio, no solo por la falta de una excavación arqueológica sistemática, sino también porque mucho de su patrimonio se ha perdido como consecuencia de los conflictos y del saqueo de los buscadores de tesoros a lo largo de los siglos 19 y 20. En la actualidad, una gran cantidad de los activos arqueológicos de Sidón son propiedad de colecciones de museos extranjeros. Esto ha hecho particularmente difícil para los historiadores desenterrar, por no hablar de identificar e interpretar, los elementos físicos de la historia de Sidón.

Enter the Kind Reader Monthly Drawing

Kind Reader Monthly Drawing (March 2017)

Congratulations to February 2017's winner Henry H. of New York, USA.

There's a daily limit of 3 free e-books that can be downloaded at KindReader.com